Ophthalmology – a branch of medicine that studies the anatomy and physiology of the eye, as well as organs of the disease. GHCA Ophthalmic clinics cover the entire range of diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.
For the diagnosis of eye diseases in GHCA clinics are used as traditional diagnostic methods and new computer technology. The main purpose of these methods is to detect the disease in its early stages.
Electrophysiological studies of the visual system.
One of the highly informative methods for studying the function of the retina and optic nerve are, electrophysiological studies. This method is based on recording the electrical response to a specific stimulus of light. In GHCA clinics following measurements are carried out in the framework of electrophysiological studies:
With this method, we investigate the functional condition of the retina, through the registration of biopotentials occurring in response to its light stimulation. Conversion of light occurs in the light-sensitive nerve cells, called photoreceptors. By the photoreceptors in the retina of the human eye are 3 types of cones, which are responsible for color vision and one kind of sticks that is responsible for vision at dusk.
After the light is converted into photoreceptors using neural signals, they are processed by nerve cells, then the signal is transmitted via the optic nerve to the brain. All activities of the nerve cells in the retina is in response to light stimulus, and represents the characteristic changes of electric potentials in the retina. These changes are measured in a weakened form on the surface of the eye. In patients with disorders of eye measurements show whether these are caused by disorders of the retina, or the affected nerve cells or photoreceptors.
Electrooculography – diagnostic method for measuring the resting potential eye. The purpose of the diagnosis - to identify violations of the so-called complex pigment epithelium cells, which arise in various degenerative diseases of the eye. For measuring the skin at eye level mounted electrodes. The patient begins to move their eyes from side to side with the same amplitude. The study was conducted in the dark at first, and then to light adaptation. Result eyes resting potential measurement is calculated from the resulting potential difference measured in the dark and the light.
Visual evoked potentials (VEP).
When the signals come from the eye through the optic nerve to the brain, it causes a whole range of action of nerve cells in the brain. They, in turn, manifest in the eye typical variation in electric potentials. Using electrodes placed on the head, these fluctuations can be measured potentials for the electrodes attached to this head and on the forehead, as a ground to top. In most cases, the VEP measurement allows to evaluate the functional condition of the optic nerve fibers and the state and to measure signal transmission speed from the optic nerve to the brain.
US eyes and its vessels.
US eyes – a standard procedure in order to assess changes in their sockets. With this diagnostic method can determine the presence of retinal detachment, and also to detect tumor formation and bleeding in the eye. The method is based on the transmission of high frequency sound waves that are reflected by different surfaces in various tissues. Using a computer graphic image produced on the screen waves.
Methods of treatment.
The clinics GHCA use the most modern methods of treatment of eye, such as laser surgery, laser trabekuoloplastika, keratoplasty, the replacement of the lens, as well as conservative treatment of eye diseases.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT).
PDT is the treatment of tumors and other tissue changes such as the formation of new blood vessels. In general, the therapeutic method used in treating cancer or retinal neovascularization. When administered intravenously to a patient a drug that is a photosensitizer, i.e. photosensitive material. Photosensitizer compound occurs with the oxygen in the tissues. The drug is distributed throughout the body, but due to the feature of the human circulatory system, it accumulates at the site of tumor formation in large quantities. After a certain time of the tumor in the pupil affected by laser, with the substance of the drug begin to produce toxins that destroy the tumor.
Laser coagulation in diseases of the retina.
Laser coagulation – a method of treatment, which is a laser effect on the damaged sections of the retina. Thus, it can prevent the retinal detachment or prevent the development of dystrophy and progressive changes in the fundus. Laser photocoagulation also is applicable in the early stages of diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration.
Laser trabeculoplasty – therapeutic method in which the inner surface of the trabeculae produced causing burns series. This action improves the permeability of the trabecular iris for the aqueous humor, reducing the risk of blockade Schlemm's canal. Due to the bright light of the laser, trabecula in the anterior chamber is expanding, with the outflow of intraocular fluid recovered from the natural waterways.
Laser iridectomy is indicated for functional pupillary block and tends to equalize the pressure of the back and the front chamber of the eye, in front of the opening angle, her camera. This method is used in the primary and secondary angle-closure glaucoma, and mixed in the form of glaucoma.
Corneal transplantation, keratoplasty.
Transplantation of the cornea replacing sections of the donor cornea transplant. Corneal transplantation can improve vision, reduce due to the development of diseases affecting the cornea or as a result of his injuries. Keratoplasty divided into two forms:
- Perforated – removes all layers of the cornea and replacing the donor corneal flap.
- Lamellar – there is a removal of the individual layers of the cornea. Done for the front and rear layers of the cornea (DALK, DSAEK, DMEK).
Injection drug Butulotoksin.
When manifestations blepharospasm – (involuntary contraction of the circular muscles of the eye, leading to permanent spasmodic closure century), shows Butulotoksin injection drug. The drug is injected under the skin at certain points around the eyes. The result is seen after 2-5 days.